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International Business: MLA Citations

This guide includes the required resource list for your Country Research Paper, plus help with MLA citations.

Citation Tutorial

What is a citation? -- Giving credit where credit is due - (14.5 min.) This tutorial includes audio and will open in a new window.

Beginning Your Works Cited List

Getting Started

  1. Understand plagiarism.
    Plagiarism happens when you do not properly cite your sources, but instead steal someone else's words or ideas without giving them credit. Read more about how to avoid plagiarism on the plagiarism tab of our tips and tutorials libguide.
  2. Know what your instructor requires.
    Are you required to use MLA style, for instance? If you can select a citation style for yourself, just be consistent.
  3. Keep track of your sources as you go.
    This way, you will avoid having to remember where you found a particular quote or fact.

Compiling Your Works Cited

  1. What type of source is it?
    Book, encyclopedia article, journal article, website, film ... ? Some of the library databases, such as Gale Virtual Reference Library or Oxford Reference Online, are the online versions of dictionaries and encyclopedias. These will be cited differently than articles from journal/magazine databases.
  2. What format is it?
    Paper or online? A journal article retrieved from a library database, like EBSCO, will be cited differently than the same article if you accessed it in paper format.
  3. When you know the source type and format ...
    a. Follow a citation style guidebook, or
    b. Use NoodleBib (lower right side of tips and tutorials page) to help format and store your citations, or
    c. Get more details and examples of MLA citations here

MLA Citation "Cheat Sheet"

MLA Formatting and Style Guide


In your citation, the elements should be listed in the following order:

  1. Author.
  2. Title of source.
  3. Title of container,
  4. Other contributors,
  5. Version,
  6. Number,
  7. Publisher,
  8. Publication date,
  9. Location.

Each element should be followed by the corresponding punctuation mark shown above. Earlier editions of the handbook included the place of publication and required different punctuation (such as journal editions in parentheses and colons after issue numbers) depending on the type of source. In the current version, punctuation is simpler (only commas and periods separate the elements), and information about the source is kept to the basics.

Basic Book

The basic form for a book citation is:

Last Name, First Name. Title of Book. City of Publication, Publisher, Publication Date.


Scholarly Journal Article

Below is the generic citation for periodicals using the MLA style. Use this as guidance if you are trying to cite a type of source not described on this page, omitting any information that does not apply:

Author. Title. Title of container (self contained if book), Other contributors (translators or editors), Version (edition), Number (vol. and/or no.), Publisher, Publisher Date, Location (pp.). 2nd container’s title, Other contributors, Version, Number, Publisher, Pub date, Location (pp.).


Article in an Online-only Scholarly Journal

MLA requires a page range for articles that appear in Scholarly Journals. If the journal you are citing appears exclusively in an online format (i.e. there is no corresponding print publication) that does not make use of page numbers, indicate the URL or other location information.

Article in an Online Scholarly Journal That Also Appears in Print

Cite articles in online scholarly journals that also appear in print as you would a scholarly journal in print, including the page range of the article. Provide the URL and the date of access.

Wheelis, Mark. “Investigating Disease Outbreaks Under a Protocol to the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention.” Emerging Infectious Diseases, vol. 6, no. 6, 2000, pp. 595-600, Accessed 8 Feb. 2009.



Citations for e-books closely resemble those for physical books. Simply indicate that the book in question is an e-book by putting the term "e-book" in the "version" slot of the MLA template (i.e., after the author, the title of the source, the title of the container, and the names of any other contributors).

Silva, Paul J. How to Write a Lot: A Practical Guide to Productive Academic Writing. E-book, American Psychological Association, 2007.


Online Webpage

An individual webpage should be in quotation marks. The name of the parent website, which MLA treats as a "container," should follow in italics:

Lundman, Susan. "How to Make Vegetarian Chili." eHow,*

Citation Software


Flow is a cloud-based citation management tool that can not only capture citation information from articles in databases and web pages, but can also capture the content of those web pages and articles, usually as a pdf or html file stored in Flow along with the citation.  Flow can be used to store collections of resources to share with others, to create bibliographies in the citation style of your choice, and also has tools that integrate with Word or Google Docs to create in-text citations as you write.

Get into Flow  small flow icon


RefWorks is an online citation management tool. Use RefWorks to export citations from many of the library databases, such as EBSCOhost and ProQuest, and then let RefWorks create your bibliography to include at the end of your research paper.
RefWorks logo
Log into RefWorks
To create your own new account, after clicking on the link above, select "Sign up for a New Account" in the gray box on the left.
Watch RefWorks tutorials
Or Ask a Librarian for help.
Note: As with all automatically generated citations, it is important to double check the accuracy of your citations before turning in your assignment.


Record and store your citation information in your own online account and NoodleBib will automatically generate your MLA or APA bibliography.

1. Log into NoodleBib
IMPORTANT: If you are off-campus, contact the library for remote access information. You will need to log in using the library databases off-campus password before you can enter your personal NoodleBib ID.

2. Create a Personal ID
Pick any Personal ID and Password you'd like. This will create an online account just for your citations.

3. Create a New List

Now that you have your own NoodleBib account, select "Create a New List" to start saving your citations for a particular class or research paper.