Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

Citing Sources Using APA: Print Sources

What to capitalize?

Titles of books or articles have special rules for capitalization.

The first word of the title and only the first word of the subtitle are capitalized. 

For example: 

Great scientific experiments: Twenty experiments that changed our view of the world.

If the title has proper nouns, they must also be capitalized.

For example:

Louis Agassiz: A life in science.

What to abbreviate?

APA rarely encourages abbreviations.  When in doubt, spell it out! 

Spell out the city of publication, but use the two letter postal code for the state.  For example:  New York, NY:

To cite locations outside the U.S. spell out the city and country names. For example: Pretoria, South Africa: Unisa.

If the publisher is a university and the name of the state is included in the university's name, do not repeat it.  For example: Laramie: University of Wyoming Press.

Give the name of the publisher as briefly as possible.  Write out names of associations, corporations, and university presses, but omit things like Publishers, Co., and Inc.  Retain the words Books and Press. For example:  New York, NY: Mc-Graw-Hill.  Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.

Scholarly Articles in Print

Articles With Volume and Issue Number

 (when each issue of a journal begins on page 1)

Smith-Rosenberg, C. (1975). The female world of love and  

     ritual: Relations between women in nineteenth-century
America. Signs, 1(1), 1-30.


(when issues of a journal are continually paginated) 

Jensen, J. M., & Miller, D. A. (1980). The gentle tamers revisited: 

     New approaches to the history of women in the
American West. Pacific Historical Review, 49, 173-213.

Please note: be sure to italicize the journal title and the volume number.  Do not italicize the issue number.


With an Author

Smith, J. (1889, December 4). Women gather for education. 

     Helena Independent,  p. 1.


Without an Author

 Montana: Same sex parental rights. (2008, October 1). New

    York Times [Late edition],  p. A8.


Article Published Monthly

Barsanti, A. B. (2005, November). A collage of western women. OAH Magazine of

          History, 41-43.

Article Published Weekly

Jason, S. (2004, February 23). From gunpowder girl to working women. Newsweek,  


Article Without an Author

Celebrate Women’s History Month. (2007, February). Reading, 48. 



With One Author

Hodes, M. E. (2006). The sea captain’s wife: A true story of love, race,

          and war in the nineteenth-century. New York, NY: Norton.


With Two to Seven Authors

(List all authors names, up to and including the 7th) 

Peavy, L. S. & Smith, U. (1994). Women in waiting in the western movement:

     Life on the home frontier. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.


With Eight or More Authors

(List the first six, then use ... and list the final author)

Brodsky, P. L., Smith, L., Miller, M., Richards, M., Heinz, R. B., Royal, J., ... Moes,

         A. (2008). Childbirth through the ages. Jefferson, MO: McFarland.


With an Editor & Edition Statement

Gordon, M., (Ed). (1978). The American family in social-historical

          perspective. (2nd ed.). New York, NY: St. Martin’s Press.

More APA Guides

Tips That Help

Follow the style guide – ALWAYS.  This is not the time to be creative.  Don’t agonize about why the guide tells you to do something, just do it!


Be consistent.  If the style guide says to use italics for the title of the book or journal (and APA does) use italics ALWAYS.


Don’t mix style guides.  APA and MLA cannot be used simultaneously in a paper.  Choose one and stick to it.


If you don’t know how to cite a particular source, look it up.  The style guide has thought of nearly every type of source.


Print off the citation of the source you consulted, when you consult it. Don’t say, “I’ll do it later,” or “I am not sure I want to use this source, I’ll go back to it if I do.”  Going back later without the citation is often impossible.