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Citing Sources Using APA: Other Common Sources

Reference Librarians

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Interviews and Emails

Any personal interviews that you conduct as part of your research or emails or letters that you receive ARE NOT included in your References at the end of you paper.  Instead you will provide in-text citations for these.  For example, this would appear in the text of your paper:

(M. Richards, personal communication, November 12, 2009)

but there would be no citation in the References at the end of your paper.

Film or Video Recording


Weaver, K. & Wheelock, M. (Producer), & Weaver, K. & Wheelock, M.

           (Director). (1996). Votes for women. [DVD].

           United States: Ishtar.

Selznick, D.O. (Producer), & Fleming, V. (Director). (1939). Gone with the wind.

           [Motion picture]. United States: MGM.

Video Clip From the Web

Hepworth. (Producer). (1899). Ladies on bicycles. Retrieved from

Advertisement Video Clip From the Web

Coca-Cola. (Producer). (2006, July 26). Coke sues Coke Zero for infringement.

          Retrieved from          


Encyclopedia or Reference Work Article - Digital

With an Author

Rhode, D. L. (2000). Nineteenth amendment. In  L.W. Levy & K.L. Karst (Eds.).

           Encyclopedia of the American Constitution (2nd ed.). Retrieved from



Without an Author

 Nineteenth amendment. (2005). In S. Phelps & J. Lehman (Eds.). West’s encyclopedia

          of American law (2nd ed., Vol. 7.)  Retrieved from

Government Documents

Government Document in Print

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office on Women’s Health.

            (2008). The healthy woman: A complete guide for all ages.

            Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.


Government Document from the Web

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control,

             National Center for Health Statistics. (2002). Cohabitation, marriage,

             divorce,  and remarriage in the United States. Hyattsville, MD: Department

             of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from



From Television

Doe, Jane. (Producer). (2004, April 3). Interview with Gerda Lerner. [Radio series 

          segment]. In S. Smith (Executive producer).  American women through history.

           Boston, MA: WGBH.


From the Internet

Van Susteren, G. (Interviewer). (2009, February 17).  Exclusive: A Visit with the

        Palins. On the Record w/Greta. [Video podcast]. Retrieved from


Conference Proceedings

Entire Proceedings

Deutrich, M. & Purdy, V.C. (Eds.). (1980). Clio was a woman: Proceedings from the

           Conference on Women's History. Washington, DC: Howard University Press.

Paper from Proceedings

Godwin, J. (1980). Bed and board: Women as boardinghouse keepers. In M. Deutrich &

           V.C. Purdy (Eds.), Clio was a woman: Proceedings from the Conference on

           Women's History (pp. 42-68). Washington, DC: Howard University Press.

Please note:  if a DOI is present, include this at the end of the citation.  If the proceedings were published in book form and you retrieved them online, there is no need to include the URL.  Include the URL only when it might be difficult to find the paper again.

Blog Post


Susan. (2009, December 10). Noisy, noisy, noisy! [Web log message]. Retrieved from


Please note:  If the person making the blog post uses a screen name (as opposed to her given name), use her screen name.

Musical Score

Beach, H.H.A. (1899). Sonata in a minor for violin and piano, opus 24. New York:


          De Capo.

More APA Guides

Tips That Help

Follow the style guide – ALWAYS.  This is not the time to be creative.  Don’t agonize about why the guide tells you to do something, just do it!


Be consistent.  If the style guide says to use italics for the title of the book or journal (and APA does) use italics ALWAYS.


Don’t mix style guides.  APA and MLA cannot be used simultaneously in a paper.  Choose one and stick to it.


If you don’t know how to cite a particular source, look it up.  The style guide has thought of nearly every type of source.


Print off the citation of the source you consulted, when you consult it. Don’t say, “I’ll do it later,” or “I am not sure I want to use this source, I’ll go back to it if I do.”  Going back later without the citation is often impossible.