Any personal interviews that you conduct as part of your research or emails or letters that you receive ARE NOT included in your References at the end of you paper. Instead you will provide in-text citations for these. For example, this would appear in the text of your paper:
(M. Richards, personal communication, November 12, 2009)
but there would be no citation in the References at the end of your paper.
Weaver, K. & Wheelock, M. (Producer), & Weaver, K. & Wheelock, M.
(Director). (1996). Votes for women. [DVD].
United States: Ishtar.
Selznick, D.O. (Producer), & Fleming, V. (Director). (1939). Gone with the wind.
[Motion picture]. United States: MGM.
Video Clip From the Web
Hepworth. (Producer). (1899). Ladies on bicycles.
Hepworth. (Producer). (1899). Ladies on bicycles.Retrieved from
Advertisement Video Clip From the Web Coca-Cola. (Producer). (2006, July 26). Coke sues Coke Zero for infringement. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/
Advertisement Video Clip From the Web
Coca-Cola. (Producer). (2006, July 26). Coke sues Coke Zero for infringement.
Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/
With an Author
Rhode, D. L. (2000). Nineteenth amendment. In L.W. Levy & K.L. Karst (Eds.).
Encyclopedia of the American Constitution (2nd ed.). Retrieved from
Without an Author
of American law (2nd ed., Vol. 7.) Retrieved from http://gogalegroup.com/ps/
Government Document in Print
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office on Women’s Health.
(2008). The healthy woman: A complete guide for all ages.
Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Government Document from the Web
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control,
National Center for Health Statistics. (2002). Cohabitation, marriage,
divorce, and remarriage in the United States. Hyattsville, MD: Department
of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/
Doe, Jane. (Producer). (2004, April 3). Interview with Gerda Lerner. [Radio series
segment]. In S. Smith (Executive producer). American women through history.
Boston, MA: WGBH.
From the Internet
Van Susteren, G. (Interviewer). (2009, February 17). Exclusive: A Visit with the
Palins. On the Record w/Greta. [Video podcast]. Retrieved from
Deutrich, M. & Purdy, V.C. (Eds.). (1980). Clio was a woman: Proceedings from the
Conference on Women's History. Washington, DC: Howard University Press.
Paper from Proceedings
Godwin, J. (1980). Bed and board: Women as boardinghouse keepers. In M. Deutrich &
V.C. Purdy (Eds.), Clio was a woman: Proceedings from the Conference on
Women's History (pp. 42-68). Washington, DC: Howard University Press.
Please note: if a DOI is present, include this at the end of the citation. If the proceedings were published in book form and you retrieved them online, there is no need to include the URL. Include the URL only when it might be difficult to find the paper again.
Beach, H.H.A. (1899). Sonata in a minor for violin and piano, opus 24. New York:
Follow the style guide – ALWAYS. This is not the time to be creative. Don’t agonize about why the guide tells you to do something, just do it!
Be consistent. If the style guide says to use italics for the title of the book or journal (and APA does) use italics ALWAYS.
Don’t mix style guides. APA and MLA cannot be used simultaneously in a paper. Choose one and stick to it.
If you don’t know how to cite a particular source, look it up. The style guide has thought of nearly every type of source.
Print off the citation of the source you consulted, when you consult it. Don’t say, “I’ll do it later,” or “I am not sure I want to use this source, I’ll go back to it if I do.” Going back later without the citation is often impossible.