References made in the text must point to specific sources in the References list.
If you use an author’s name in the text, you need not repeat it in the parenthetical reference.
If a reference has no author (is listed by title in the References), include the title or shortened title (if the title is long) in the parenthetical reference.
In-text citations for legal materials use the same form as other APA references. See examples in center box.
Do not include:
Personal communications (personal interviews, conversations, email exchanges)
Classical works (Bible, Qur'an) that have standardized sections across editions
in your References list. They must be cited within the text of your paper, however.
The examples below illustrate how to make a reference within your paper based on the References list you have created.
Barsanti, A.B. (2005, November). A collage of western women. OAH Magazine of
In-Text According to Barsanti … (2005)
Davis, R.L. (2008). Not marriage at all but simple history: The companionate marriage
controversy. Journal of American History, 94.4. Retrieved
In-Text For women who choose to live with men outside of … (Davis, 2008)
Jensen, J. M., & Miller, D.A. (1980). The gentle tamers revisited: New
approaches to the history of women in the American West. Pacific
Historical Review, 49, 173-213.
In-Text Historians now believe… (Jensen and Miller, 1980)
[late edition], p. A8.
In-Text Some states are moving toward parental rights… (“Montana,” 2008)
In-Text M. Richards noted in her letter that… (personal communication, November 12, 2009)
Please note: there is no entry in the References list for this citation.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control,
National Center for Health Statistics. (2002). Cohabitation, marriage,
divorce, and remarriage in the United States. Hyattsville, MD: Department
of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/
In-Text Statistics for 2009 indicate that… (U.S., Department of Health and Human Services, 2002)
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office on Women’s Health.
(2008). The healthy woman: A complete guide for all ages.
Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
In-Text The U.S. Office on Women's Health provides... (2008).
Violence Against Women and Department of Justice Reauthorization Act of 2005,
Pub. L. 109-162, 119 Stat. 2960 (2006).
In-Text (Violence Against Women, 2006).