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Education: APA Citations

Includes the book list for EDFD 2020 course

When to use italics

Italics - When italicizing the periodical title, also italicize the volume of the periodical.  Do not italicize the issue or page numbers.

To URL or not?

Provide URLs in the following circumstances:

When the item's content may change (for example: a WIKI or Blog)

When there is no DOI available for the online journal article

When getting back to a library database might be problematic

Scholarly Articles - Digital, With DOI

Article from a Library Database or on the Web

Ompett, E. A., Sorsoli, L., Schooler, D., Henson, J. A., & Tolman, D. L. (2008). Girls'

            relationship authenticity and self-esteem across adolescence.

            Developmental Psychology, 44, 722-733. 

            doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.44.3.722

Please note:  DOI stands for digital object identifier.  It will be listed with the article if it exists.  It is typically a series of numbers.


Scholarly Articles - Digital, Without DOI

(from a library database)

Welter, B. (1966). The cult of true womanhood: 1820-1860. American Quarterly, 18,


Please note:  This article was found in a library database (JSTOR).  Since it is also available in paper and is easily located, you do not need the URL.  If locating the article online is difficult, you should provide the URL.

(from the Web)

Davis, R. L. (2008). Not marriage at all but simple harlotry: The companionate marriage

          controversy. Journal of American History, 94(4). Retrieved


Please note:  This article was retrieved by searching the open Internet.  It contains no page numbers and the URL is provided to help the reader locate the item.

Magazines - Digital

Magazine Article from a Library Database

(No URL because it is easy to retrieve.  This magazine does not have a volume number or issue number)

Lowry, T.P. (2002, December). The Army's licensed prostitutes. Civil War Times

          Illustrated, 30. 

Alternately, if you are citing an electronic version of a paper item, you may include [Electronic version].

Lowry, T.P. (2002, December). The Army's licensed prostitutes. [Electronic version].

           Civil War Times Illustrated, 30.


Web Documents

     You should be able to find the following elements for any website you use: author, title of website, title of section of website, date of website, URL

      Don't be lazy; sometimes you have to hunt for these elements.  This may include "backing out" of the page ( by removing part of the URL so that you are at the main webpage (

 Entire Website

U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service. (2009, May). Women’s Rights

          National Historical Park. Retrieved from


Section of a Website

Lavender, C. (2001). Making it their own: Women in the West. WestWeb. Retrieved



Section of a Website - No Author

Bill Clinton: 1993-2001. (2008, December). The White House. Retrieved from

Newspaper Article (Digital)

From a Library Database or the Web

Albergotti, R. (2009, March 20). The dunk that made history. Wall Street

          Journal, [Eastern ed.], p. W5. 

Baker, P. & Zeleny, J. (2009, May 26). Obama hails judge as inspiring.

          [Electronic version]. New York Times.




More APA Guides

Tips That Help

Follow the style guide – ALWAYS.  This is not the time to be creative.  Don’t agonize about why the guide tells you to do something, just do it!


Be consistent.  If the style guide says to use italics for the title of the book or journal (and APA does) use italics ALWAYS.


Don’t mix style guides.  APA and MLA cannot be used simultaneously in a paper.  Choose one and stick to it.


If you don’t know how to cite a particular source, look it up.  The style guide has thought of nearly every type of source.


Print off the citation of the source you consulted, when you consult it. Don’t say, “I’ll do it later,” or “I am not sure I want to use this source, I’ll go back to it if I do.”  Going back later without the citation is often impossible.