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Speech-Language Pathology: Home

Reference Sources


Streaming Media

Journal Articles

Citation Help

Citing Images

Basic format for your References list:

Creator, C. (Year of publication or n.d.). Title of image in Italics [image type, such as Photograph, Diagram, Chart, etc.]. Source. URL.            

Example 1: An image from Anatomy.TV

Primal Pictures. (2012). Clinical specialties: Introduction to audiology: External, middle and inner ear (layer 1) [Diagram]. AnatomyTV.

In-text citation:
‚Äč(Primal Pictures, 2012)

To include the image as a figure:

Figure 1

Clinical specialties: Introduction to audiology: External, middle and inner ear

"Image Box"

Note. From “Clinical Specialties: Introduction to Audiology: External, Middle and Inner Ear (Layer 1),” by Primal Pictures, 2012, Anatomy TV, ( aspx). Copyright 2012 by Primal Pictures.

Example 2: An image you found online (use Creative Commons search!)

Brockmann, C. L. (2009). Anatomy of the human ear [Diagram]. Wikipedia.

In-text citation:

(Brockmann, 2009)

Example 3: An image you found online with no title (describe the image in square brackets)

Marr, T. L. (2018). [Photograph of a speech pathologist working with a child]. US Army.

In-text citation:
(Marr, 2018)

Citing Lectures (PowerPoints)

Basic format:

Instructor, I. (Year). Title of presentation in italics [PowerPoint slides]. Learning Management System Name. Login page URL


Swanger, M. (2018). How to cite using APA style [PowerPoint slides]. Canvas.

In-text citation:
(Swanger, 2018)


Citing Textbook


Seikel, J. Anthony; Drumright, David G.; Seikel, Paula. (2013). ‘Anatomy & Physiology of Respiration’ Essentials of Anatomy & Physiology for Communication Disorders. Delmar, Cengage Learning, p. 89.


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