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CMS Format: Using Source Material: The Bibliography

CMS Format

CMS refers to a research format described in the Chicago Manual of Style. This format is often used for history, philosophy and religion papers; instructors in other disciplines may also prefer CMS format.

The Bibliography

Page Format

All sources cited in the paper should be listed in the Bibliography, except newspaper articles, blog and social media posts, classical literary works, well-known sacred works and reference works, and certain public documents (e.g. the U. S. Constitution).

Center the title Bibliography at the top of the page. Use single spacing within entries and double spacing between entries. Use a hanging indent, and list sources in alphabetical order by the authors’ last names; alphabetize unsigned articles by the first word of the title (ignoring the articles A, An, and The).

Author's Names

One Author: Write the name in inverted order, last name first:

Macdonald, Helen.

Two to Ten Authors: Use inverted order for the first author and normal order for the rest:

            Stevenson, Robert Louis, and Lloyd Osbourne.

More Than Ten Authors: List the first seven authors, using inverted order for the first author and normal order for the rest; follow the seventh name with the abbreviation et al., meaning "and others."

Abbot, Albert., Laura B. Ross, Jesse J. Toma, Mario Fresquez, Patrice Felicity French, George D. Stoll, Madison Schram, et al.

Corporate Author: If an individual author is not known for a work issued by an organization, the organization should be listed as the author even if it is also shown as the publisher.

National Cyber Security Alliance. "Online Safety Basics: Online Shopping." StaySafeOnline. National Cyber Security Alliance, 2020.



Use headline-style capitalization, i.e., capitalize the first letter of the first word of a title, and every important word thereafter.

Titles of self-contained works (such as books and periodicals) should be written in italics; titles of shorter works contained in a longer work (such as chapters or articles) should be placed in quotation marks.

Titles of websites should not be italicized unless they are analogous to other types of publications, such as magazines or encyclopedias.