CMS refers to a research format described in the Chicago Manual of Style. This format is often used for history, philosophy and religion papers; instructors in other disciplines may also prefer CMS format.
When you use any information drawn from a source in your paper, you need to insert a footnote identifying the source as follows:
Inductive reasoning is inherently weak because any conclusion reached through induction can be disproved by newly found evidence.1
1. Loisa Nygaard, "Winning the Game: Inductive Reasoning in Poe's 'Murders in the Rue Morgue,'" Studies in Romanticism 33, no. 2 (1994): 242, accessed November 12, 2019, doi:10.2307/25601058.
For sources with two or three authors, include all authors’ names in the footnote:
1. Peter Dunne, David Sibley, and Clay Sutton., Hawks in Flight: The Flight Identification of North American Raptors (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2012), 43.
For sources with four or more authors, use the name of the first author listed, followed by the abbreviation et al. (meaning “and others”):
1. Edward Frongillo et al., "Family Care Behaviors and Early Childhood Development in Low- and Middle-Income Countries," Journal of Child & Family Studies 26, no. 11 (November 2017): 3036, accessed June 2, 2020, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10826-107-0816-3.
For unsigned sources, begin the note with the title.
For multiple citations of the same source:
2. Ibid., 47.
2. Nygaard, "Winning the Game," 245.