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Physical Therapy: AMA Formatting

Formatting sources

American Medical Association (AMA) Citation Style

"References should be numbered consecutively with arabic numerals in the order in which they are cited in the text."1

The following citations are color coded to help you identify the various parts of the citation.

Journals

Journal names are abbreviated according to the National Library of Medicine. Use the Advanced Search Option and search by Journal.

List all authors unless more than 6, in which case list 3 followed by "et al."

Print:
Printed journals are periodicals, magazines, newspapers, etc. you can hold in your hands.

Format:

Author(s). Article Title. Journal Name. Year;vol(issue):inclusive pages.
Example: O'Laughlin, SJ. Unicameral bone cyst of the calcaneus. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2012;42(1):43.
Online:
Online journals are
periodicals, magazines, newspapers, etc that you need a computer to read. Sometimes they are referred to as eJournals or electronic journals.

Format:

Author(s). Article Title. Journal Name. Year;vol(issue):inclusive pages. URL. Accessed [date](no accessed date necessary if DOI instead of URL).
Example: Olofsson L, Fjellman-Wiklund A, Soderman K. From loss towards restoration: experiences from anterior cruciate ligament injury. Adv Physiother. March 2010;12(1):50-57. doi:10.3109/14038190903165120.

Books

Print:
Printed books are ones you can hold in your hands.

Format:

Author(s). Book Title. Edition number (only if it is the second edition or above). City, State (or Country) of publisher: Publisher's Name; copyright year.

Example:

1. Iverson C, American Medical Association. AMA Manual of Style : A Guide for Authors and Editors. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2007.

Online:
Online books are any that you need a computer to read. Sometimes they are referred to as eBooks or electronic books.

Format:

Author(s). Book Title. Edition number (only if it is the second edition or above). City, State (or Country) of publisher: Publisher's Name; copyright year. URL. Accessed [date].
Example: Micheo, WR, ed. Musculoskeletal, Sports, and Occupational Medicine. 4th ed. New York: Demos; 2011. http://site.ebrary.com/lib/lccc/docDetail.action?docID=10440675. Accessed [January 13, 2012]. 


Web Sites

Format:

Author (or, if no author is available, the name of the organization responsible for the site). Title (or, if no title is available, the name of the organization responsible for the site). Name of the Web Site. URL. Accessed [date].
Example: Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of LaborAmerican Cancer SocietyPhysical Therapist Assistants and Aides. Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2010-11 ed. http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos167.htm. Accessed [January 17, 2012].