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Agricultural Economics: APA Citations

This guide will help you with Rosemary McBride's AGEC 1010 research paper

An Introduction to APA Style

Page Layout

  • Double space throughout
  • Use one-inch margins on all sides
  • Font should be clear and readable, 11 or 12 pt. size depending on instructor requirements
  • Page numbers should appear in the right-hand corner of every page, half an inch from the top of the page

Elements of an APA Paper

Title Page

        Three or four lines from the top of the first page, center the following:

  • Title, using bold type and title case (capitalize first word and all important words)
  • Name of student
  • Department and college name
  • Course name and number
  • Name of instructor
  • Date of submission

         Note: Add an additional line space between the title and the student’s name

Text of the Paper

  • Center the title at the top of the first page of text using bold type and title case
  • Do not use a sub-heading for the introduction
  • Use appropriate sub-headings for major divisions in the text (see p. 8)

References List

  • Center the word References in bold at the top of the page
  • Use a hanging indent to format entries
  • List sources in alphabetical order by authors’ last names
  • Alphabetize unsigned sources by the first word of the title (except A, An, The)

Note on 7th Edition

         APA no longer recommends running heads or abstracts for student papers, but some instructors may still require them.


Using Source Material:

In-Text Citations

  • When you incorporate any information drawn from an outside source in your paper, you need to identify the source within your text in one of the following ways:
    1. Introduce the information with a signal phrase including the author’s last name and the year of publication.
      • According to Smith (2010) . . . or Smith (2010) reported . . .
    2. Follow the information with the author's last name and the year of publication in parentheses::
      • (Smith, 2010).
  •   For a direct quote, include the location (e.g., page number):
    • (Smith, 2010, p. 475).
  • For sources with two authors, include both authors’ names in the citation:​
    • Smith and Jones (2010) reported . . . or (Smith & Jones, 2010).
  • For a source with three or more authors, use the last name of the first author listed, followed by the abbreviation et al. (meaning “and others”):
    • Smith et al. (2010) reported . . . or (Smith et al., 2010)
  • For a source with an unknown author, use the first piece of information on the References entry for that source, usually the title. Long titles may be shortened to a few words. Use title case, and put article titles in quotation marks; use italics for book titles and other titles italicized on the References list:
    • According to “Latest Developments” (2019) . . . or
    • (“Latest Developments,” 2019)
  • For a source with no known publication date, use the initials n.d. where the year would appear:
    • According to Lopez and Rivera (n.d.), . . . or (Lopez & Rivera, n.d.).
  • To cite multiple sources, list alphabetically and separate with semi-colons:
    • (Brooks, 2017; Park & Schmidt, 2015; Weil, 2019).


Using Source Material:


When you use the author’s exact words, even for a short phrase, you must identify the material as a quote and include the exact location of the quote.

  • For sources with page numbers (e.g. print sources or pdf versions) use the page number:

(Terrell & Watson, 2018, p. 149)

  • For web pages without page numbers use the section heading or paragraph number:

(Olsen, 2017, When to Change section);

(Olsen, 2017, para. 2);

  • For videos, use the time stamp:

(Expert Vagabond, 2016, 1:04).

A direct quote of fewer than 40 words begins and ends with quotation marks and should be incorporated into the text:

Ablon (1971) stated that the wave of emigration from American Samoa began in 1951, when the U.S. Navy “closed the naval base at Pago Pago on the major island of Tutuila” (p. 71).

A direct quote of 40 words or more begins on a new line, is indented half an inch from the left-hand margin, and does not use quotation marks:

According to Ablon (1971), the population of American Samoa dropped dramatically as a result of a wave of emigration following the withdrawal of the Navy from Pago Pago in 1951:

Many Samoan naval personnel and their dependents were then moved to Honolulu and from there to the West Coast cities in the late 1950’s. Many of these naval personnel have since retired and their families have remained in California. Other Samoans who are currently in the various branches of the service are based in California cities where their wives and children establish homes and reside during their tours of duty. (p. 77)


To omit unnecessary wording within a quote, use an ellipsis; to add material within a quote, use brackets:

According to James (2017), “Dishonesty . . . is never [emphasis added] acceptable.”

Using Source Material:

References Page

The list of References begins on a new page. Center the title References in bold at the top of the page. The page should be double-spaced, and entries should use a hanging indent (the first line of each entry begins at the margin, but the second and all subsequent lines are indented an additional half inch.)

List the references in alphabetical order by the authors’ last names; alphabetize unsigned articles by the first word of the title (except for A, An, and The).

Each entry should contain the author, the date, the title, and the source.

Authors’ Names

List authors by last name, followed by a comma and the authors’ initials. For sources with two to twenty authors, include the names of all the authors, using an ampersand (&) before the final name:

Marcek, V. I., Lewis, M. J., & Han, H.

For sources with more than twenty authors, list the first nineteen names, followed by an ellipsis, followed by the final author’s name:

Abbot, A., Ross, L. B., Toma, J. J., Fresquez, M., French, P. F., Stoll, G. D., Schram, M., Eisen, I. F., Nelson, A. B., Tannen, B., Entwhistle, B. J., Tredwell, P. E., Thrisk, N. S., Fiorelli, G., Feldman, R. S., Stuyvesant, P., Southworth, R., Ellington, D., Nordyke, L. N., . . . Takahashi, M.


Place dates in parentheses after the authors’ names. For journal articles, use only the year; for other sources begin with the year, followed by a comma and the month and day.


Use sentence case capitalization for titles of works on the references list; that is, capitalize the first letter of the first word, the first word after a colon, and proper nouns. Use italics for titles of self-contained works (such as books, webpages, and plays).


The source for a self-contained work (such as a book) is the publisher. The source for a short work contained within a longer work (such as an article in a periodical) is usually the title and publication information for the longer work in which it appears. The source for a webpage is the name of the website, which should be written in title case without italics; omit the source if the name of the website is the same as the name of the author.

Sample References and In-Text Citations


Author’s last name, initial(s). (Year of publication). Title of book in italics. Publisher.

Book with One Author:

Macdonald, H. (2014). H is for hawk. Grove Press.

In-text citation: (Macdonald, 2014).

Book with Two Authors:

Owens, M., & Owens, D. (1984). Cry of the Kalahari. Houghton Mifflin.

In-text citation: (Owens & Owens, 1984).

Book with Three to Twenty Authors:

Dunne, P., Sibley, D., & Sutton, C. (2012). Hawks in flight: The flight identification of North American raptors. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.

In-text citation: (Dunne et al., 2012).

       Book with an Editor:

Jung, C. G. (1953). The collected works of C. G. Jung (H. Read, M. Fordham, & G. Adler, Eds., Vol. 1). Pantheon Books.

       Chapter or Article in a Book or Entry from a Reference Book:

Storck, T. (1997). Censorship can be beneficial. In B. L. Stay (Ed.), Censorship: Opposing viewpoints (pp. 17-24). Greenhaven Press.

       Electronic Version of a Print Book:

Huxley, T. H. (2005) The advance of science in the last half-century. D. Appleton and Company.

 (Original work published 1889).


Author’s last name, First Initial., Middle Initial. (Publication date). Title of article. Title of Magazine or Journal, volume number(issue number), page numbers.

       Journal Article in Print: (Include a DOI beginning with when available)

Merskey, H. (1996). Ethical issues in the search for repressed memories. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 50(3), 323-335.

              Journal Article from an Academic Database: (Include a DOI beginning with when available; do not include a URL)

Ablon, J. (1971). The social organization of an urban Samoan community. Southwestern Journal of Anthropology, 27(1), 75-96.


Journal Article Online: (Include a DOI beginning with available; otherwise include a URL formatted as a hyperlink)

Bregant, J. (2014). Critical thinking in education: Why to avoid logical fallacies? Problems of Education in the 21st Century, 61, 18-27.

       Magazine Article in Print:

Yeager, A. (2015, August 22). Maestros of learning and memory. Science News, 188(4), 18-21.

               Magazine or Newspaper Article Online:

Olsen, P. (2017, September 4). 5 things to know about oil changes for your car. Consumer Reports.

Natanson, H. (2019, September 6). Forget what you may have been told. New study says strangers step in to help 90 percent of the

          time. The Washington Post.


Other Online Sources


Author’s Last Name, Initial. (year, month day). Title of document. Name of Website. URL formatted as a hyperlink

Munger, M. (2019, November 4). Starbucks too has surge pricing. American Institute for Economic Research.

       Webpage with No Author Named:

Guideline for online shopping. (2018). Shop Online.

In-text citation: (Guideline for Online Shopping, 2018).

       Webpage with Site Name Used as Author’s Name:

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019, January 24). Tuberculosis (TB) disease: Symptoms and risk factors.

       YouTube Video:

       Screen name. (year, month day). Title of video [Video]. YouTube. URL formatted as a hyperlink

Expert Vagabond. (2016, March 9). Mayan ruins of Coba – Mexico [Video]. YouTube.

       Dictionary or Encyclopedia: (Include retrieval date if source is continuously updated)

Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). dictionary. Retrieved February 13, 2020, from

Writing in APA Style


Abbreviations are used for:

  • Words that appear as word entries in the dictionary, such as ESP
  • Terms that are familiar to the reader as abbreviations; on first use write out the full term followed by the abbreviation in parentheses
  • Units of measurement accompanied by numerals: 18 kHz
  • Chemical compounds
  • Some units of time: hr (hour); min (minute); ms (millisecond); s (second)

Capitalizing Titles

APA uses two different styles of capitalization:

  • Title case: Capitalize the first word of the title, every important word thereafter (nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs), and every word of four or more letters. Use for:
  • The title of your paper
  • Headings throughout your paper
  • The title of any work (book, article, name of website) used within the text of your paper, including in-text citations
  • Names of periodicals in the text of the paper and on the references list
  • Sentence-style case: Capitalize only the first word of the title, the first word after a colon, and proper nouns. Use on the References list for titles of works, including books, periodical articles, web pages, etc.


Use italics for:

  • Key terms used within the paper
  • Genus and species
  • Non-English words which do not appear in the dictionary and are likely to be unfamiliar to the reader
  • Letters used as statistical symbols or algebraic variables
  • Titles of self-contained works, such as books, magazines and journals, webpages, websites, plays, movies, tv series, etc.

Levels of Headings

  • Level 1: centered, bold, title case; text begins on next line as a new paragraph
  • Level 2: flush left, bold, title case; text begins on next line as a new paragraph
  • Level 3: flush left, bold italics, title case; text begins on next line as a new paragraph
  • Level 4: indented, bold, title case, ends with a period; text begins on same line
  • Level 5: indented, bold italics, title case, ends with a period; text begins on same line


  • Write out numbers from zero to nine, numbers at the beginning of a sentence, common fractions, and numbers in common expressions (e.g. twelve-step programs).
  • Use numerals for numbers 10 and above, numbers preceding units of measurement, numbers used in statistical or mathematical contexts, and numbers referring to time, dates, ages, scores, and sums of money.

Paraphrasing and Summarizing

Paraphrase or summarize source material whenever possible; that is, put the material in your own words. Always identify the source by name and date; locations (page, section or paragraph numbers) are not usually required for paraphrases and summaries.

Quotation Marks

Use quotation marks for:

  • Direct quotes under 40 words long
  • Titles of short works contained within a longer works, such as periodical articles, book chapters, reference book entries, tv episodes, songs/poems, etc., when these titles appear within the text of your paper, including in-text citations.

                        According to “10 Early Signs of Alzheimer’s” (2020) . . .  

                        (“10 Early Signs of Alzheimer’s,” 2020).

Verb Tense in Signal Phrases and Summaries

Use past tense verbs in signal phrases and summaries:

            Williams (2016) argued that . . .

            Williams (2016) stated, “No evidence of misconduct was presented” (p. 124).






Hoarding Disorder: What It Is, Who Is Affected, and How It Can Be Treated


Mary J. Moore

Psychology Department, Laramie County Community College

Professor Wiley

May 12, 2020


























Hoarding Disorder: What It Is, Who Is Affected, and How It Can Be Treated

             No one likes to think about neighbors, friends or loved ones living in the midst of excessive clutter, and, worse yet, being hurt because

they simply have too much stuff. But a number of unexpected risks are associated with hoarding disorder (HD), and more people live with the

disorder than most people realize.


            What is hoarding disorder? Wheaton et al. (2012) defined it as a compulsion to acquire goods combined with an inability to get rid of them,

to the extent that the hoarder’s use of their living space is impaired, and their functioning within that space is also impaired. The hoarder acquires

an abnormal quantity of goods in variety of ways; in one study a majority of women identified shopping as their primary means of accumulating

goods, “whereas men were more likely to report collecting free items and stealing” (Kress et al., 2016, p. 84).  Having acquired the items, the

hoarder refuses to get rid of them, often demonstrating an inability to distinguish between the valuable and the worthless, difficulty in decision

making, and a high level of anxiety or even grief when an object must be thrown away (Gilliam & Tolin, 2010). The hoarder fills up their living

space, sometimes to the extent that they must creep around the house on trails through stacks of furniture, appliances, boxes, papers, and

garbage; in extreme cases there is no longer room to perform everyday household functions (Gilliam & Tolin, 2010). 

HD as a Compulsive Disorder

             Because the person with HD feels a compulsion to acquire objects and is obsessively attached to them, the condition was formerly

considered a type of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD; “When Keeping,” 2011). It differs from OCD, however, in some important ways, mainly

in that people with OCD tend to be aware of their dysfunction, while people with HD commonly don’t feel that there is anything wrong with their

behavior (Gilliam & Tolin, 2010).




Frost, R., & Steketee, G. (2010). Stuff: Compulsive hoarding and the meaning of things. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.

Gilliam, C., & Tolin, D. (2010). Compulsive hoarding. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 74(2), 93-121. 


Kress, V. E., Stargell, N. A., Zoldan, C. A., & Pavlo, M. J.  (2016). Hoarding disorder: Diagnosis, assessment, and treatment. Journal of 

             Counseling & Development, 94, 83-90.

Mayo Clinic Staff. (2014). Diseases and conditions: Hoarding disorder. Mayo Clinic.


Neziroglu, F. (2015, July). Hoarding: The basics. Anxiety and Depression Association of America. understanding-

              anxiety/obsessive-compulsive-disorder-ocd/ hoarding-basics

Tolin, D. F., Fitch, K., Frost, R. O., & Steketee, G. (2010). Family informants’ perceptions of insight in compulsive hoarding. Cognitive

              Therapy & Research 34, 69-81.

Wheaton, M., Fabricant, L., Beman N., & Abramowitz, J. (2013). Experiential avoidance in individuals with hoarding disorder. Cognitive

              Therapy & Research, 37, 779-785.

When keeping stuff gets out of hand. (2011, November). Harvard Health Publishing.